Tag Archives: care

SWIMMING WITH DOGS DURING SUMMER

INTRODUCTION

Summer is here and it means summer vacations. Many dog ​​owners will bring their companion with them. Many will have as destination, a resort area with a lake or even a beach. Other lucky ones, will enjoy the family pool.
Can swimming in open water or in swimming pools cause health problems for dogs?

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Not all dogs are as skilled in the water and many are not good swimmers.
• Ex .: Dachshund (dog sausage) and the Bulldogs. Dachshunds have very small legs, which does not allow them to have optimal swimming.
Not all dogs will necessarily like to swim, so you sometimes have to get used to them gradually, using positive reinforcement.

Some brachycephalic breeds (flat nose, partially obstructed airways) have more difficulty coping with swimming.
• Ex .: English bulldog, pug.

Flotation Jackets:
• They are essential if your dog accompanies you by boat, whether in a lake or on the sea.
• They are particularly important for certain dog breeds that are not known to be good swimmers: short-nosed breeds, English and French Bulldogs, Pekinese, pugs …
• Even for good swimmers, an accident can occur in the middle of the night or even in daylight if the body of water is agitated.
• Be careful when the water is very cold, like in many rivers in the Laurentians. Dogs that stay too long may suffer from hypothermia and drowning may occur.
• Flotation jackets are essential for rivers, especially if the current is powerful.

FRESH WATER (LAKES AND RIVERS)

Blue algae
Especially observed later in the summer ,when it gets very hot and water levels drop. Ingestion of these algae can be toxic or even fatal for dogs who drink contaminated water.
You should always have water to drink for your dog. The better he is hydrated, the less he will feel the need to drink water from the lake or the river.

Bacteria
There are often surface bacteria in the lakes ,in very hot weather, bacteria can make our dogs sick (eg faecal coliforms).
Most provinces have websites that allow people to check the quality levels before going for a swim. The Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and the Fight Against Climate Change Québec has a website to inform swimmers about the quality of water (the link will be posted on the show’s website).

Otitis
After swimming, it is recommended to clean the animal’s ears with a cleaning solution and to dry the ears well. We use cotton wool.

Rinsing
Whenever possible, it is always a good idea to rinse the dog with fresh water (to remove bacteria and pathogenic algae) and then dry the dog thoroughly.
A dog that stays wet for a long time is predisposed to getting skin infections.
Before leaving the lake, we use towels and we dry as much as possible (so you must pack accordingly) and then complete at home with a hairdryer.

SALT WATER

It takes a lot of fresh water to properly hydrate the animal.
Saltwater consumption causes diarrhea and salt can cause even more severe dehydration.
So you have to prevent the consumption of salt water by offering fresh water to drink. Your dog should be encouraged to drink fresh water as often as possible (at least every 20 minutes), especially during hot weather.
Have “hydration” breaks every 20 minutes.

Post-swim rinse
Everyone who was lucky enough to go to the sea knows it. After a day of swimming, our skin is a bit sticky because of salt and sand. It’s the same for our dogs, so it’s a good idea to rinse your dog at the end of the day and then dry it as I mentioned earlier.

Otitis
Same recommendation as for swimming in fresh water. After swimming, it is recommended to clean the ears with a cleaning solution for the ears of animals and to dry the ears well. We use cotton wool.

POOLS

Consider this ,dogs are not as clean as humans. Some may disagree 🙂 .Long haired breeds often have small debris stuck by their backside area (fecal matter,dirt,urine etc) which can contaminate a pool real fast….especially if those same animals are not treated for parasites. Staying on top of your pool water quality and filtration is a must.5E7CED70-2E59-4113-BA77-F4EEDB004462

That being said, according to Dr. Scott Weese of the University of Guelph, the risks of contamination are quite low. According to him, a dog is much less likely to do his needs in a swimming pool than a young child …
(DVM DVSc DipACVIM is a Veterinary Intern and Microbiologist, Diplomat of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Professor at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, and Microbiologist in Public Health. and zoonoses at the University of Guelph’s Center for Public Health and Zoonoses, and Head of Infection Control at the Ontario Veterinary University Hospital and Canada Research Chair in Zoonotic Diseases) .
Still according to Dr. Weese, one should not let a dog who vomits, has diarrhea or has a skin infection, swim in the family pool.

Chlorine
Specialists mention that it is possible to maintain a good quality of pool water, without exaggerating with the use of chlorine. Water should be tested more often. Be sure to maintain pH levels between 7.2 and 7.6 to maximize chlorine efficiency.
Like us, dogs can be sensitive to chlorine in pool water and can cause conjunctivitis (red eyes, usually transient) and dermatitis (inflammation of the skin).
So again, rinse the dog after swimming.

Pool latters versus stairways
Like with children,dogs can easily fall into pools by accident(like trying to reach a floating toy). Many pools are not equiped with stairways permitting a fallen dog,means to escape which can then lead to potential drownings. One must show his dog how to get out of the pool. No easy task here. Otitis/rincing and drying solutions are the same as mentionned above.

Useful links

Provincial water quality sites

http://www.mddelcc.gouv.qc.ca/eau/recreative/qualite.htm

Dogs and swimming pools
https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2009/07/articles/animals/dogs/dogs-and-swimming-pools/

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

 

Advertisements

DIABETES MELLITUS IN PETS

INTRODUCTION

November is Diabetes Awareness Month for pets. Diabetes mellitus is a well-known disease in humans. Few people know that it can touch our four-legged friends too!

WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?

Diabetes is a hormonal disease, due to a lack or insufficient action of insulin, which regulates the blood sugar level.

Glucose, a vital source of energy for the body

Dogs and cats find in their diet , sugars  which are transformed into glucose during the digestion. Glucose then passes in the bloodstream and  used as an essential energy source for all organs. Normally, this  is allowed by insulin, a hormone that passes glucose from the blood to the cells that make up the organs.

When insulin fails or does not work properly, glucose can not get into the cells, which then denies, those same cells, access to their main fuel. Glucose then accumulates in the blood, which is at the origin of various health disorders for  diabetic animals.

WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF DIABETES IN PETS?insulin-syringe-2129490_960_720

In humans, diabetes is divided into two forms: Type I and Type II.

These are also called juvenile diabetes and adult diabetes, or insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

In short, type 1 is the type where the pancreas produces no insulin (dogs), and in type 2, the pancreas produces insulin, but not enough  or there is interference with its effectiveness (cats).

Certain endocrine conditions such as Cushing’s disease ( where the adrenal glands  secrete too much cortisol) and certain medications (cortisone) can promote the onset of diabetes.

RISK FACTORS

While diabetes has been diagnosed in dogs and cats of all ages, sexes and breeds, some animals are more at risk of developing the disease.

RISK FACTORS IN DOGS

  • Age (middle to older dogs are most affected)
  • Unsterilized females
  • Genetics
  • Obesity
  • Specific breeds : These breeds present a higher risk of developing diabetes:
  1. Cocker Spaniels
  2. Dachshunds
  3. Doberman Pinschers
  4. German Shepherds
  5. Golden Retrievers
  6. Labrador Retrievers
  7. Pomeranians
  8. Terriers
  9. Toy poodles

RISK FACTOR IN CATS

  • Age (older cats are more sensitive)
  • Sterilized males
  • Genetics
  • Other conditions or conditions that may cause insulin reduction or resistance such as chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) or hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones)
  • Obesity
  • Physical inactivity

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF DIABETES IN DOGS AND CATS?

Thus, the main clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are:

  • Eating excessively
  • Drinking excessively
  • Excessive urination
  • Weight loss (over an extended period of time …)

The signs are sometimes subtle in cats.

A plantigrade walk  (compared to a normal swift walk)  is sometimes observed in cats.

DO DIABETES HAVE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE HEALTH AND LONGEVITY OF MY ANIMAL? (In short, are we obligated to treat?)

Without proper treatment, diabetes mellitus can cause serious complications. Let’s mention the most common ones:

  • Cataracts (can lead to blindness)
  • Urinary tract infections (recurrent)
  • Coma and even death

TREATMENT

First thing to know, oral hypoglycemic agents are not very effective in animals. So very little are used in veterinary medicine.

The main treatment is insulin, which must be injected every 12 hours, sometimes for the life of the animal (although cures are possible in cats).

Glucose curves should be performed regularly, ideally by the owner at home, or at the clinic.

Exercise (dog).

FOOD CHANGES MUST ME MADE:

Dogs: diets  low in calories and high in fiber

Cats: diets rich in protein and low in carbohydrates.

PREVENTION

Considering that obesity is a significant risk factor for the onset of diabetes, keeping your pet at a healthy weight is a simple and very effective procedure.

CONCLUSION

Managing your dog’s or cat’s diabetes will require effort, but the rewards are worth it. Once controlled, thirst urination, appetite, and activity level return to normal and they are less likely to develop complications related to this disease.

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

PROTECTING FIVE FREEDOMS TO ENSURE ANIMAL WELFARE

Introduction

Every year for more than 30 years , the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association has organized Animal Life Week. This year, it will be held from October 1st to 7th .

This year’s theme highlights the five fundamental freedoms that animals need to survive and thrive.

This year’s theme is an opportunity to remind animal owners (not just pets) of the fundamentals they must provide to the animals entrusted to their care to ensure they lead a happy and healthy life.SEMAINE VIE ANIMALE

Even though many think they know the factors that can make a pet happy, it is good to be reminded of them from time to time and Animal Life Week is a good opportunity to do so.

What is the origin of the five freedoms?

According to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health), animal welfare “refers to the way in which an animal evolves in the conditions that surrounds it”.

The OIE guidelines on animal welfare also refer to the universally recognized “five fundamental freedoms” laid down in 1965 to describe the rights of animals under human responsibility.

In 2002, at the request of its Member States (including Canada), and recognizing that animal health is a fundamental component of their well-being, the OIE expanded its mandate to include standards on the well- being.

The first OIE intergovernmental standards on animal welfare were published in 2005.

The standards adopted focus on the welfare of terrestrial animals and farmed fish in specific configurations.

They are regularly updated as scientific knowledge evolves.

OIE standards are adopted by consensus at the World Assembly of National Delegates of the OIE, which means that all Member States undertake to apply them at national level, disregarding each state’s cultural and economic situation.

The Five Animal Freedoms

Pet owners can protect the Five Animal Freedoms by:

  1. Providing appropriate nutrition

Prevent hunger and thirst by providing fresh water and food to ensure vigorous health.

  1. Providing appropriate socialization

Give the opportunity to spend time with or without members of their species according to their needs.

  1. Providing appropriate accommodation

Provide a suitable environment that includes a shelter and a comfortable rest area to avoid discomfort.

  1. Providing appropriate veterinary care

Promote the absence of pain, injury or illness through prevention or prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Allowing animals to behave normally

Promote the ability to express normal behavior by providing adequate space, adequate facilities, tools and accessories, and by not punishing animals when they exhibit undesirable behavior.

Conclusion

You want your animals to be happy? You must then protect their five fundamental freedoms.

All provinces have organizations that promote and protect animal welfare. Most of these organizations are underfunded and require volunteers and donations. Do not hesitate to support them.

 Useful links

OIE Animal welfare

http://www.oie.int/fr/bien-etre-animal/la-sante-animale-dun-coup-doeil/

Canadian Veterinary Medical Association: Animal Health Week 2017

https://www.veterinairesaucanada.net/practice-economics/animal-health-week-current

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

 

 

Rabbit dental care

 

Does your rabbit need orthodontic care? As curious as it may seem, dental malocclusion in rabbits is an important problem and is often under diagnosed.

The poor apposition of the teeth is one of the main causes of the loss of appetite in rabbits.

The origins of the malocclusion are multiple. We speak mainly of genetic causes, traumas and dental abscesses.animal-1846462_960_720

The diet of rabbits is very abrasive, which has the effect of wearing the teeth during chewing. To compensate for this wear, the teeth of rabbits grow continuously. The molars are aligned so that the wear surfaces are flat with sharp edges, allowing effective chewing of fibre. The teeth must be properly aligned to allow for proper wear of maxillary and mandibular teeth.

Rabbits with malocclusion usually exhibit excessive drooling, appetite and weight loss. Anorexia is frequently progressive. First, the animal stops eating its pellets, then its hay, then, finally its vegetables. Often the animal seems interested in its food. He even goes to put food in his mouth, to drop it shortly after. Owners often mention that these rabbits grind their teeth.

Loss of appetite should be addressed promptly in rabbits, because if it persists too long, it can become lethal.

To make a precise diagnosis, your veterinarian will often have to put your rabbit under anesthesia, especially if his mouth is full of saliva and a problem in the back teeth is suspected.

Depending on the type of problem, its origin and its location, treatments will be suggested. Some advanced cases can sometimes be relieved, but cannot be cured permanently. Some rabbits will require regular visits to their veterinarian.

So the best solution is prevention. Offer a rich fibre diet containing a large amount of hay, ideally Timothy as well as good leafy green vegetables.

Where possible, acquire the rabbit from a breeder who is known to produce animals free from malocclusion. And finally, after buying the rabbit, have it checked immediately by your veterinarian to make sure it is free from birth defects and infections.

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

Inappropriate Elimination in cats

Inappropriate Elimination in cats according to the veterinarians of the Lachine Veterinary Clinic.

When a cat urinates or eliminates stools in the house and out of its litter box, it is never pleasant. This behavior is called inappropriate elimination. And the latter is the most common undesirable behavior encountered with cats.

Causes

The causes of an  inappropriate elimination can be divided in two: medical and non-medical .

Medical causes

In terms of medical causes, veterinarians at the Lachine veterinary clinic immediately think of urinary problems such as cystitis (bladder infection) or the presence of stones in the bladder. These conditions generate a lot of pain and  cats that have them tend to want to urinate very often, but in small amounts wherever they are, every time the pain becomes too intense.

Other diseases such as renal insufficiency, hyperthyroidism and diabetes, to name a few, cause excessive thirst and are associated naturally with frequent urination. Cats with these conditions find it difficult to hold back and sometimes, they urinate outside their tank when they cannot reach them in time.

Some geriatric diseases such as osteoarthritis can also cause inopportune elimination. If the tray is placed on a countertop or in a location that is not easily accessible, the arthritic cat will have greater  difficulty accessing it. Same thing if the walls of the litter box are very high, the cat can then have a lot of difficulty climbing up the litter box and will have no choice but to eliminate elsewhere.

Eventually, diseases of the digestive system such as colitis, intestinal parasites, constipation, blockage or infection of the anal bags, can result in the elimination of stools in the home.

Non-medical causes

Apart from medical causes, the major non-medical causes can be divided into three categories: aversion, preference and marking. In terms of aversion, a cat may not like its tray, the type of litter used, or where it is located. For example, if the tray is placed in the children’s playroom, it is quite possible that the cat hesitates to go to in his box.cat-336270_960_720

The strong odors that sometimes come out of the tank when it is not cleaned often enough, can sometimes discourage the cat from going there also.  Scented litters sometimes can cause the same problem. Finally, some ammonia-based detergents have the unfortunate property of leaving an unpleasant residual odor for cats, who ,let’s not forget, have a much more developed sense of smell than ours and will then avoid going into the box .

The type of litter used may also cause aversion in some cats, whether due to the texture or the inadequate amount of litter in the tray .

The height and style of the litter box can also cause undesirable aversion and elimination. Think of an inferior sized tray, too small for a big cat or conversely far too high for a kitten. Some bins are nowadays fitted with lids and this is not always adequate for some felines.

In terms of preference, it can be said that a cat may prefer one kind over another. It may prefer clumping litter to that made of traditional clay gravel. He may also prefer one place rather than another, especially if the box is in a busy place. In some cases, the texture and cleanliness of some places such as the carpet in the living room, the floor in the dining room, some fabrics such as clothes or plastic may seem more attractive to a cat.

Marking

Finally, marking is a normal behavior in cats, it is their way of leaving their business card, marking their territory or attracting a potential mate. It is however very unpleasant! Unsterilized cats  have a special way of marking: they mainly make it standing up, allowing small amounts of urine to escape on vertical surfaces. Some cats and sterilized cats will mark their territory by urinating on certain objects belonging to the owner. With these animals, this type of tagging is often associated with the presence of outside cats. It can also be a manifestation of anxiety in some cats . Note that the incidence of this type of marking increases with the number of cats living under one roof. One study reported a 100% chance in families with 10 or more cats.

Treatment

Let’s see how to fix the problem.

No punishment!

In the first place, you must make sure that your cat does not suffer from a medical problem. You should therefore consult the veterinarians of the Lachine Veterinary Clinic.

It is essential to clean the soiled areas. We strongly recommend using products that will completely neutralize odors ,not masking products like certain fragrances. For more information, please contact us. You can also cover the areas soiled with a thick plastic. This can have the effect of discouraging the cat from eliminating on the covered location.

If it is an inopportune elimination related to the aversion phenomenon, you must carry out an impeccable maintenance of the tank: remove urine and feces as they appear. If you choose clumping litter, in addition to removing stools, you should remove the agglomerated urine pellets daily and change the litter once a week. When cleaning the tray, do not forget to use ammonia or bleach cleaners.

It is important to provide the cat with an inopportune elimination problem,  a good variety of bins and litters. Offer different models of different sizes.

Another good idea is to place bins in the places chosen by the cat. You can then move these containers to a more convenient location very gradually.

In a family where several cats live, it is also important to identify the culprit: if necessary, you should isolate the cats ,one by one for a short period of time, in a room. Also, remember that you should have at least one litter box per cat living under one roof, plus another , and up to five. So, in a family where four cats live, we should find five clean litter boxes!

Sterilization is effective in 90% of males and 95% of females to regulate  inappropriate eliminations .

In regards to sterilized cats that are marking; attempts should be made to limit the ability of house cats to view outside cats and ,when possible, to get rid of these cats . You must block visual access through windows and doors. You can also lock the cat in a room where he cannot see the outside cats. In some cases, motion sensors or fences can keep some outdoor cats out of the yard and away from the windows.

A behavioral consultation with a veterinarian is always indicated. Sometimes some medication may be prescribed to correct the problem when environmental changes or sterilization have not been effective. Talk to veterinarians at the Lachine Veterinary Clinic.

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

Emotional urination

The emotional urination problem or dogs that pee on our shoes.

Today, the Lachine Veterinary Clinic vets explain a very annoying behavioral problem that is often encountered with dogs.

Coming home from work, many dog ​​owners  are faced with an “agitated” animal that urinates when it sees or hears them come in the door . It also happens when guests come home. It’s always unpleasant when someone’s guest is urinated on  upon arrival. Especially if the guest in question is not a dog lover. Many times, veterinarians  at Lachine veterinary clinic get the same shoe treatment several times in consultation.

Generally, dogs suffering from this bad habit are very anxious and may even show signs of appeasement: lowering the body, yawn, moving ears back, diverting the gaze, tail carried low and  “involuntary” urination. Some dogs will even lay on their backs.

So if you are struggling with this problem and want to fix it, some behavior modification exercises can be performed.blissdodo

First, it is very important not to punish the animal suffering from anxiety or submissive urination! Verbally nor physically!

Second, you should ignore the animal upon arrival. It’s difficult! We must also avoid talking to him with a “baby” tone which, you know, excites them even more.  Give attention only once the dog as calmed down. Ideally, you should ask your guests to do the same. It is not always easy, especially when your guest loves animals.

To make your plan work, you must necessarily be able to discern the physical signs of a relaxed dog. It is when the body is not stiff,  jaw hanging relaxed and not tense in any way,  ears straight, but not rigid and eyes calm and relaxed. Generally, a relaxed dog does not constantly moan.

Third, avoid bending over the animal: this has the effect of worsening the situation.

Fourth, when you get home, redirect his attention with a treat or a toy when you enter your home ,drop the toy or treat on the floor without even speaking to him and without even looking into his eyes. Ideally, you should have the treat or toy in question at the time of your entry into the home. Some toys available on the market allow to hide food or a treat in them, which is very useful to divert your dog’s attention.

Finally, in specific cases where anxiety is difficult to control even with the behavior modification exercises, medication can be used to facilitate the therapy. But beware, the miracle pill does not exist, without the exercises  carried out every day, treatment is sure to fail. For more information on the available treatments, consult the veterinarians of the Lachine veterinary clinic.

The same modus operandi can be applied to dogs barking excessively, when the owners come home.

 Good luck and wait until that therapy has started to bear fruits before you go out and change your shoes!

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.

Feeding your guinea pig

Guinea pigs love to eat, when they are healthy , they have a big appetite. This is why, it is important to offer guinea pigs ,quality food.  Like us, they are unable to naturally produce their own vitamin C, so we must give them foods rich in vitamin c and even give them a supplement on a daily basis.

A guinea pig who does not receive a vitamin C supplement or a diet rich in vitamin C, rapidly depletes  its reserves and can develop scurvy, a disease directly related to this deficiency.

The Lachine veterinary clinic veterinarians recommend you to feed your guinea pig as follows:chickpea2

  1. Fiber is a very important part of their daily diet. Timothy hay of good quality should be offered at will.
  2. Pellets (extruded food) is not essential if you provide enough green and hay, but it can be given in moderate amounts, about 1/4 cup (~ 60 ml) per day. Avoid diets containing grains like; (corn, sunflower, etc.).
  3. Offer him a variety of quality green vegetables, such as carrots ,heads of romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, fresh parsley, fresh herbs, dandelion, pepper, fennel, etc. You can also offer him small quantities of fruits. He will like bananas, apples, strawberries and raspberries.
  4. Avoid vitamin supplement (except vitamin C of course) and minerals. As well as treats made from dairy products.
  5. Give vitamin C every day. You can dissolve 1/4 tablet of 1000 mg soluble vitamin C (Redoxon®) in a cup of water.
  6. If Your guinea pig refuses to drink by itself, offer 2.5 ml of this solution: dissolve 1/4 tablet of 1000 mg soluble vitamin C (Redoxon®) in 1/4 cup water . Do not forget to change the solution every day.
  7. You Can also offer him  tablets of vitamin C like the  Oxbow® brand. 1 tablet daily.

If you ever have any questions, do not hesitate to contact a member of the medical team of the Clinic (514-634-4190) who will be happy to assist you.

About the clinic: The Lachine Veterinary Clinic offers an unmatched and personalized service to pet owners from Lachine, LaSalle, Dorval and Pointe Claire, but also across the West Island of Montreal (West Island) and Laval, and has done so ,since 1982.